12 CIVET AND MUSK their darker' coat In the spring. This is, however, only an extreme case of a change which is general. Most animals get a thicker fur In winter and exchange It for a lighter one in summer. And the hues of the coat change in correspondence. Glands of the Skin. — The great variety of integumeiital glands possessed by the Mammalia distinguishes them from any group of lower Vertebrates. This variability, however, only con- cerns the anatomical structure of the glands In question. Histo- loglcally they are all of them apparently to be referred to one of two types, the sudoriparous or sweat gland and the sebaceous gland. Simple sweat and sebaceous glands are abundant In mammals, with but a few exceptions. The structures that we are now concerned with are agglomerations of these glands. The mammary glands will be treated of in connexion with the mar- supium; they are either masses of sweat glands, or of sebaceous glands whose secretion has been converted into milk. Many Carnlvora possess glands opening to the exterior, near the anus, by a large orifice. These secrete various odoriferous substances, of which the well-known " civetM is an example. Other odoriferous glands are the musk glands of the Musk-deer and of the Beaver ; the suborbital gland of many Antelopes ; the dorsal gland of the Peccary, which has given the name of Dicotyles to the genus on account of its resemblance In form to a navel. This gland may be seen to secrete a clear watery fluid. The Elephant has a gland situated on the temple, which is said to secrete during certain periods only, and to be a warning to leave the animal alone. Very remarkable are the foot glands of certain species of Ktiinoceros ; they are not universally present in those animals, and are therefore useful as specific distinctions. On the back of the root of the tail In many Dogs are similar glands. The Gentle Hemur (Hapalemur) has a peculiar gland upon the arm, about the size of an almond, which in the male underlies a patch of spiny outgrowths. In Lemur varius is a hard patch of black skin which may be the remnants of such a gland. It is thought that the callosities on the legs of Horses and Asses are remnants of glands. One of the most complex of these structures which has been examined microscopically exists in the Marsupial Hfyrmecolri'us.1 On the skin of the anterior part of the chest, just In front of the 1 Proc. Zool. Soc. 1887, p. 527.